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Harkness, E.M. and Brown, W.A.B. (1972). Clinical Cephalometric Standards: A radiographic Study of 12-year old British Girls. Orthodontist. 1972; 3-12

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The primary aim of this investigation was to establish standards for some commonly used clinical cephalometric measurements from twelve year old Cardiff girls, which could be used for a South Wales population, or even on a wider basis. The findings were based on lateral cephalometric radiographs, height and weight measurements and a questionaire. The sample was randomly selected from all twelve year old girls living in Cardiff during 1968. The findings for the sample of 216 girls indicated a considerable range of variation of many of the cephalometric variables. This variation is statistically described by the ranges and standard deviations of all the continuous variables and illustrated with histograms. Though it would be tempting to make comparisons of the findings of this study with those of other workers, it is felt that they would be misleading. The purpose of this study has been to emphasise the need to employ sampling techniques which reduce the number of variables such as that of age and sex race, and which assure that the sample is fully representative of the community.

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