W.A.B., Christofferson, P.V.,Massler, M., and
Weiss, M.B. (1960). Postnatal Tooth Development
in cattle, American Journal of Veterinary Research,
International Journal of Osteoarchaeology. 21:
study was designed to establish the chronology of enamel and
dentin formation in cattle as accurately as possible in order
to lay a firm foundation for future studies in tooth ring
analysis, i.e., the effects of specific physiologic and pathologic
stresses on enamel and dentin formation.
The chronology of development of the permanent incisor and
canine teeth was established from analysis of radiographs
obtained in viva from 869 purebred cattle living under optimal
nutritional conditions. It was found that the development
of the incisor and canine (anterior) teeth followed an orderly
sequence. The first incisor began to develop enamel and dentin
when the calf was 6 months of age; the second incisor at 12
months, when the crown of the first incisor was completed;
and the third incisor at 20 months, soon after the crown of
the second incisor was completed at 18 months. The canine
tooth began its enamel and dentin formation at 27 months,
three months after the third incisor crown was completed.
Eruption and root formation followed a similar orderly sequence
from the first incisor to the canine tooth. The first incisor
emerged into the oral cavity at 23 months, the second incisor
at 30 months, the third incisor at 36 months and the canine
tooth at 42 months. Root formation was four fifths completed
at the time of emergence.
No significant differences in the chronology of tooth development
in the different breeds or sexes were found in spite of relatively
large developmental and genetic differences between dairy
and beef cattle.
It is hoped that this study will provide a satisfactory baseline
for future studies, which relate the effects of physiologic
stress such, as birth, weaning, pregnancy and lactation, as
well as pathologic factors as nutritional deficiencies, fluorosis
intoxication and infectious diseases upon the enamel and dentin
(tooth ring analysis).
W.A.B. (1960) Eruption of the first permanent incisor in cattle.
Transactions of the European Orthodontic Society. 1-4.