Brown, W.A.B., Christofferson, P.V.,Massler, M., and Weiss, M.B. (1960). Postnatal Tooth Development in cattle, American Journal of Veterinary Research, International Journal of Osteoarchaeology. 21: 7-34

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This study was designed to establish the chronology of enamel and dentin formation in cattle as accurately as possible in order to lay a firm foundation for future studies in tooth ring analysis, i.e., the effects of specific physiologic and pathologic stresses on enamel and dentin formation.

The chronology of development of the permanent incisor and canine teeth was established from analysis of radiographs obtained in viva from 869 purebred cattle living under optimal nutritional conditions. It was found that the development of the incisor and canine (anterior) teeth followed an orderly sequence. The first incisor began to develop enamel and dentin when the calf was 6 months of age; the second incisor at 12 months, when the crown of the first incisor was completed; and the third incisor at 20 months, soon after the crown of the second incisor was completed at 18 months. The canine tooth began its enamel and dentin formation at 27 months, three months after the third incisor crown was completed.

Eruption and root formation followed a similar orderly sequence from the first incisor to the canine tooth. The first incisor emerged into the oral cavity at 23 months, the second incisor at 30 months, the third incisor at 36 months and the canine tooth at 42 months. Root formation was four fifths completed at the time of emergence.

No significant differences in the chronology of tooth development in the different breeds or sexes were found in spite of relatively large developmental and genetic differences between dairy and beef cattle.

It is hoped that this study will provide a satisfactory baseline for future studies, which relate the effects of physiologic stress such, as birth, weaning, pregnancy and lactation, as well as pathologic factors as nutritional deficiencies, fluorosis intoxication and infectious diseases upon the enamel and dentin (tooth ring analysis).

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Brown, W.A.B. (1960) Eruption of the first permanent incisor in cattle. Transactions of the European Orthodontic Society. 1-4.

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