undernutrition in pigs
R.A., Ford, E.H.R. and Brown, W.A.B. (1961). Severe
undernutrition in growing and adult animals. 7.
Development of the skull, jaws and teeth of pigs.
Brit. J. Nutr. 15.213 -224.
study was made of the differential effects of
severe and prolonged under-nutrition on the growth
and development of the pig's skull and teeth.
(A).The endocranial dimensions were a little smaller
than in animals of the same age but they were
much nearer their correct chronological size than
the other skull measurements. The bones were very
thin and the air sinuses poorly developed. (B)
The growth of the jaw was more severely retarded
than the development of the teeth; the mandible
was less affected than the maxilla. Lines of arrested
growth were seen at the posterior border of the
angle of the mandible suggesting the incremental
pattern of its growth. (C)Tooth development and
eruption, and the resorption of the deciduous
dentition, were all delayed. The angle of eruption
of the incisors was abnormal. (D)The size of the
crowns of the teeth was unaffected, except that
of the third molars, which were only 60-70 % of
their normal dimensions. (E) The reduced growth
of the jaw and the normal size of the crowns led
to crowding of all the teeth and impaction of
the molars. Forward movement of the mandible,
probably due to growth of the condyle, often produced
severe malocclusion. There was extensive attrition
of both the temporary and permanent teeth. Rehabilitation
of the undernourished pigs restored the proportions
of their skull and jaws to normal, but left many
of the abnormalities in the teeth as they were.