Severe undernutrition in pigs

McCance, R.A., Ford, E.H.R. and Brown, W.A.B. (1961). Severe undernutrition in growing and adult animals. 7. Development of the skull, jaws and teeth of pigs. Brit. J. Nutr. 15.213 -224.

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A study was made of the differential effects of severe and prolonged under-nutrition on the growth and development of the pig's skull and teeth. (A).The endocranial dimensions were a little smaller than in animals of the same age but they were much nearer their correct chronological size than the other skull measurements. The bones were very thin and the air sinuses poorly developed. (B) The growth of the jaw was more severely retarded than the development of the teeth; the mandible was less affected than the maxilla. Lines of arrested growth were seen at the posterior border of the angle of the mandible suggesting the incremental pattern of its growth. (C)Tooth development and eruption, and the resorption of the deciduous dentition, were all delayed. The angle of eruption of the incisors was abnormal. (D)The size of the crowns of the teeth was unaffected, except that of the third molars, which were only 60-70 % of their normal dimensions. (E) The reduced growth of the jaw and the normal size of the crowns led to crowding of all the teeth and impaction of the molars. Forward movement of the mandible, probably due to growth of the condyle, often produced severe malocclusion. There was extensive attrition of both the temporary and permanent teeth. Rehabilitation of the undernourished pigs restored the proportions of their skull and jaws to normal, but left many of the abnormalities in the teeth as they were.

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  Incremental banding in teeth  
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